DOI: https://doi.org/10.30978/MG-2019-4-45

Дисбіоз кишечника, ожиріння і метаболічний синдром: як вибратися із підступного трикутника?

N. B. Gubergrits, N. V. Byelyayeva, O. V. Tsys, V. S. Rachmetova

Анотація


Проаналізовано дані світової літератури та результати доказових експериментальних і клінічних досліджень про взаємозв’язок особливостей харчування і мікробіоти кишечника. Особливу увагу приділено участі дис­біо­зу кишечника та синдрому надлишкового бактеріального росту в тонкій кишці в патогенезі ожиріння і метаболічного синдрому. Наведено аргументи на користь двох основних гіпотез: метаболічної ендотоксемії та «зберігання». Перша розглядає механізми впливу ліпополісахариду грамнегативної кишкової флори, підвищення проникності кишкової стінки, ендоканабіноїдної системи і кишкової лужної фосфатази. Гіпотеза «зберігання» враховує особливості ферментації харчових полісахаридів, абсорбцію моносахаридів і роль кишкової мікробіоти та метаболітів її життєдіяльності (зокрема коротколанцюгових жирних кислот) у регуляції ліпідного обміну. Особливу увагу приділено лікуванню: зміні харчового раціону, використанню про- і пребіотиків, фекальній трансплантації. Проаналізовано вплив компонентів їжі на кишкову мікробіоту, зокрема харчових волокон, таких як резистентний крохмаль та інулін, а також жиру і білків. Показано, що склад кишкової мікробіоти відображує харчові звички та склад раціону. Дієта з високим вмістом жирів різко збільшує кишкову проникність завдяки механізму, пов’язаному зі зниженою експресією білків епітеліального щільного з’єднання, зокрема зонуліну та оклюдину. Обґрунтовано гіпотезу про те, що кишковий мікробіом, пов’язаний з ожирінням, має підвищену здатність до отримання енергії з раціону («ефект накопичення»). Проаналізовано переваги антибіотика з низькою кишковою абсорбцією — рифаксиміну. Наведено результати досліджень, які доводять еубіотичні властивості рифаксиміну та його ефективність при дисбіозі кишечника.


Ключові слова


мікробіота; дисбіоз кишечника; сидром надлишкового бактеріального росту; ожиріння; метаболічний синдром; патогенез; лікування

Повний текст:

PDF (Русский)

Посилання


Metabolicheskiy sindrom [Metabolic Syndrome] (Russian). / Pod red. GY Roytberga. Moscow: MED-press-inform; 2007:224.

Plotnikova EY. Intestinal microbial landscape and metabolic syndrome - what is common? (Russian). Vestnik kluba pankreatologov [Herald of Pancreatic Club] (Russian). 2016. 2:63-72.

Plotnikova EY, Borsch MV, Krasnova MV, Baranova EN. Some aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of excessive bacterial contamination of the small intestine in clinical practice (Russian). Lechashchiy vrach [Attending doctor] (Russian). 2013. 2:52-56.

Tkach SM, Puchkov KS, Sizenko AK. Kishechnaya mikrobiota v norme i pri patologii. Sovremennyye podkhody k diagnostike i korrektsii kishechnogo disbioza [Intestinal microbiota in normal and pathological state. Modern approaches to the diagnosis and correction of intestinal dysbiosis] (Russian). Kyiv; 2014:149.

Tkach SM., Yuzvenko TY., Cheverda TL. Modern pharmacotherapy of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (Russian). Zdorov’ya Ukrayiny [Health of Ukraine] (Ukrainian). 2017. 18:68-71.

Alhamoruni A, Wright KL, Larvin M, O’Sullivan SE. Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2598-2610. DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01589.x.

al-Waiz M, Mikov M, Mitchell SC, Smith RL. The exogenous origin of trimethylamine in the mouse. Metabolism. 1992;41:135-136. DOI: 10.1016/0026-0495 (92)90140-6.

Amar J, Serino M, Lange C et al. Involvement of tissue bacteria in the onset of diabetes in humans: evidence for a concept. Diabetologia. 2011;54:3055-3061. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-011-2329-8.

Arpaia N, Campbell C, Fan X et al. Metabolites produced by commensal bacteria promote peripheral regulatory T-cell generation. Nature. 2013;504 (7480):451-455. DOI: 10.1038/nature12726.

Arumugam M, Raes J, Pelletier E et al. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2011;473 (7346):174-180. DOI: 10.1038/nature09944.

Backhed F, Ding H, Wang T et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101 (44):15718-15723. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0407076101.

Backhed F, Manchester JK, Semenkovich CF, Gordon JI. Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104:979-984. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0605374104.

Bajaj JS, Barbara G, DuPont HL et al. New concepts on intestinal microbiota and the role of the non-absorbable antibiotics with special reference to rifaximin in digestive diseases. Dig Liver Dis. 2018;50(8):741-749. DOI: 10.1016/j.dld.2018.04.020.

Barcenilla A, Pryde SE, Martin JC et al. Phylogenetic relationships of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human gut. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:1654-1661. DOI: 10.1128/aem.66.4.1654-1661.2000.

Bates JM, Akerlund J, Mittge E, Guillemin K. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase detoxifies lipopolysaccharide and prevents inflammation in zebrafish in response to the gut microbiota. Cell Host Microbe. 2004;N 2:371-382. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.10.010.

Belkaid Y, Hand TW. Role of the microbiota in immunity and inflammation. Cell. 2014;157(1):121-141. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.011.

Bezkorovainy A. Probiotics: determinants of survival and growth in the gut. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73, N2:399S-405S. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/73.2.399s.

Bhatti JS, Bhatti GK, Reddy PH. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in metabolic disorders - A step towards mitochondria based therapeutic strategies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017;N 1863:1066-1077. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.11.010.

Bjursell M, Admyre T, Goransson M et al. Improved glucose control and reduced body fat mass in free fatty acid receptor 2-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;N 300:E211-220. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00229.2010.

Bluher M, Engeli S, Kloting N et al. Dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue endocannabinoid system in human abdominal obesity. Diabetes. 2006;55:3053-3060. DOI: 10.2337/db06-0812.

Caesar R, Reigstad CS, Backhed HK et al. Gut-derived lipopolysaccharide augments adipose macrophage accumulation but is not essential for impaired glucose or insulin tolerance in mice. Gut. 2012;61 (12):1701-1707. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301689.

Calder PC. Fatty acids and inflammation: the cutting edge between food and pharma. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668:50-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.05.085.

Cani PD, Amar J, Iglesias MA et al. Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2014;56:1761-1772. DOI: 10.2337/db06-1491.

Cani PD, Bibiloni R, Knauf C et al. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes. 2008;57:1470-1481. DOI: 10.2337/db07-1403.

Cani PD, Everard A. Talking microbes: when gut bacteria interact with diet and host organs. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60(1):58-66. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201500406.

Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Fava F et al. Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia. 2007;50:2374-2383. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-007-0791-0.

Cani PD, Possemiers S, Van De Wiele T et al. Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut. 2009;58:1091-1103. DOI: 10.1136/gut.2008.165886.

Chakraborti CK. Role of adiponectin and some other factors linking type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. World J Diabetes. 2015;N 6 (15):1296-1308. DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i15.1296.

Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE et al. The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Gastroenterological Association, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, and American College of Gastroenterology. Gastroenterology. 2012;142, N7:1592-1609. DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2016.10.023.

Conterno L, Fava F, Viola R, Tuohy KM. Obesity and the gut microbiota: does up-regulating colonic fermentation protect against obesity and metabolic disease?. Genes Nutr. 2011;N 6 (3):241-260. DOI: 10.1007/s12263-011-0230-1.

Cote M, Matias I, Lemieux I et al. Circulating endocannabinoid levels, abdominal adiposity and related cardiometabolic risk factors in obese men. Int J Obes. 2007;31:692-699. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803539.

Dao MC, Everard A, Aron-Wisnewsky J et al. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology. Gut. 2016;65(3):426-436. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308778.

David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN et al. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2014;505 (7484):559-563. DOI: 10.1038/nature12820.

De Filippo C, Cavalieri D, Di Paola M et al. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107:14691-14696. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1005963107.

De La Serre CB, Ellis CL, Lee J et al. Propensity to high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats is associated with changes in the gut microbiota and gut inflammation. Am J Physiol. 2010;299:G440-448. DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00098.2010.

den Besten G, van Eunen K, Groen AK et al. The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism. J Lipid Res. 2013;54(9):2325-2340. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.R036012.

Ding H, Wang T, Hooper LV et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:15718-15712. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0407076101.

Ding S, Chi MM, Scull BP et al. High-fatdiet: bacteria interactions promote intestinal inflammation which precedes and correlates with obesity and insulin resistance in mouse. PLoS One. 2010;N 5. e12191. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012191.

Duranti S, Ferrario C, van Sinderen D et al. Obesity and microbiota: an example of an intricate relationship. Genes Nutr. 2017;N 12:18. DOI: 10.1186/s12263-017-0566-2.

Estall JL, Drucker DJ. Glucagon-like Peptide-2. Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:391-411. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.26.061505.111223.

Fandriks L. Roles of the metabolic syndrome: an overview. J Intern Med. 2017;281(4):319-336. DOI: 10.1111/joim.12584.

Fasano A. Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Physiol Rev. 2011;91:151-175. DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00003.2008.

Federico A, Dallio M, Godos J et al. Targeting gut-liver axis for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: translational and clinical evidence. Transl Res. 2016;167:116-124. DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2015.08.002.

Furet J, Kong L, Tap J et al. Differential Adaptation of Human Gut Microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers. Diabetes. 2010;59:3049-3057. DOI: 10.2337/db10-0253.

Gatta L, Scarpignato C. Systematic review with meta-analysis: rifaximin is effective and safe for the treatment of small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017;45(5):604-616. DOI: 10.1111/apt.13928.

Ghoshal S, Witta J, Zhong J et al. Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption of lipopolysaccharides. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:90-97. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M800156-JLR200.

Goodrich JK, Waters JL, Poole AC et al. Human genetics shape the gut microbiome. Cell. 2014;159(4):789-799. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.053.

Groschwitz KR, Hogan SP. Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:3-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.05.038.

Haro C, Rangel-Zúñiga OA, Alcalá-Díaz JF et al. Intestinal microbiota is influenced by gender and body mass index. PLoS One. 2016;11(5). e0154090. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154090.

Huang S, Rutkowsky JM, Snodgrass RG et al. Saturated fatty acids activate TLR-mediated proinflammatory signaling pathways. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2002-2013. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.D029546.

Ignacio A, Fernandes MR, Rodrigues VA et al. Correlation between body mass index and faecal microbiota from children. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;N 22 (3):e1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.10.031.

Isacco L, Roche J, Quinart S et al. Cardiometabolic risk is associated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing in children with obesity. Physiol Behav. 2016;170:62-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.12.018.

Islam KB.M. S., Fukiya S, Hagio M et al. Bile acid is a host factor that regulates the composition of the cecal microbiota in rats. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(5):1773-1781. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.07.046.

Kadooka Y, Sato M, Imaizumi K et al. Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri SBT 2055) in adults with obesetendencies in a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:636-643. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.19.

Karlsson FH, Tremaroli V, Nookaew I et al. Gut metagenome in European women with normal, impaired and diabetic glucose control. Nature. 2013;498:99-103. DOI: 10.1038/nature12198.

Klaus DA, Motal MC, Burger-Klepp U et al. Increased plasma zonulin in patients with sepsis. Biochem Medica. 2013;23:107-111. PMID: 23457771.

Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2013;19:576-585. DOI: 10.1038/nm.3145.

Korner J, Leibe RI. To eat or not to eat - how the gut talks to the brain. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:926-928. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp038114.

Koyama I, Matsunaga T, Harada T et al. Alkaline phosphatases reduce toxicity of lipopolysaccharides in vivo and in vitro through dephosphorylation. Clin Biochem. 2002;35:455-461. PMID: 12413606.

Krishnadath IS, Toelsie JR, Hofman A, Jaddoe VW. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in the Suriname Health Study: a cross-sectional population study. BMJ- - Open. 2016;N 6. e013183. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013183.

Lalles J.-P. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: multiple biological roles in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and modulation by diet. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:323-332. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00292.x.

Lamprecht M, Bogner S, Schippinger G et al. Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, andinflammation in trained men; arandomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;N 9:45. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-45.

Lang DH, Yeung CK, Peter RM et al. Isoform specificity of trimethylamine N-oxygenation by human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and P450 enzymes: selective catalysis by FM03. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998;56:1005-1012. DOI: 10.1016/s0006-2952 (98)00218-4.

Larsen N, Vogensen FK, van den Berg FW.J. et al. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults. PLoS One. 2010;N 5. e9085. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009085.

Lau E, Carvalho D, Pina-Vaz C et al. Beyond gut microbiota: understanding obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hormones (Athens). 2015;14(3):358-369. DOI: 10.14310/horm.2002.1571.

Laugerette F, Vors C, Geloen A et al. Emulsified lipids increase endotoxemia: possible role in early postprandial low-grade inflammation. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:53-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.11.011.

Le Chatelier E, Nielsen T, Qin J et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013;500:541-546. DOI: 10.1038/nature12506.

Le Poul E, Loison C, Struyf S et al. Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25481-25489. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M301403200.

Lee HY, Park JH, Seok SH et al. Human originated bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, produce conjugated linoleic acid and show anti-obesity effects indiet-induced obese mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:736-744. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.05.007.

Lee JY, Sohn KH, Rhee SH, Hwang D. Saturated fatty acids, but not unsaturated fatty acids, induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mediated through Toll-like receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:16683-16689. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M011695200.

Ley RE, Backhed F, Turnbaugh P et al. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005;102 (31):11070-11075. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0504978102.

Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature. 2006;444 (7122):1022-1023. DOI: 10.1038/4441022a.

Lizana PA, Paula CV, Araya L et al. Obesity, Body fat distribution, and physical activity in school-age children: an urban and rural comparison in Valparaíso, Chile. Biomed Environ Sci. 2016;29:834-839. DOI: 10.3967/bes2016.112.

Loguericio C. Gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas: from phisiology to pathology. Torino: Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2018:123.

Loomba R, Sanyal AJ. The global NAFLD epidemic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;10, N11:686-690. DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2013.171.

Lopetuso LR, Petito V, Scaldaferri F, Gasbarrini A. Gut microbiota modulation and mucosal immunity: focus on rifaximin. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2015;16(3):179-185. PMID: 26643042.

Louis P, Flint HJ, Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;294:1-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01514.x.

Louis P, Hold GL, Flint HJ. The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014;12 (10):661-672. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro3344.

Louis P, Scott KP, Duncan SH, Flint HJ. Understanding the effects of diet on bacterial metabolism in the large intestine. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102:1197-1208. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03322.x.

Lu Y, Fan C, Liang A et al. Effects of SCFA on the DNA methylation pattern of adiponectin and resistin in high-fat-diet-induced obese male mice. Br J Nutr. 2018;120(4):385-392. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114518001526.

Madsen KI. The use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disease. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15, N12:817-822. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114518001526.

Mar Rodríguez M, Pérez D, Javier Chaves F et al. Obesity changes the human gut mycobiome. Sci Rep. 2015;N 5:14600. DOI: 10.1038/srep14600.

Membrez M, Blancher F, Jaquet M et al. Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice. FASEB. 2008;22:2416-2426. DOI: 10.1096/fj.07-102723.

Million M, Angelakis E, Maraninchi M et al. Correlation between body mass index and gut concentrations of Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium animalis, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Escherichia coli. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37 (11):1460-1466. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2013.20.

Muccioli GG, Naslain D, Backhed F et al. The endocannabinoid system links gut microbiota to adipogenesis. Mol Syst Biol. 2010;N 6:392. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2010.46.

Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Guo J et al. Obesity, disordered eating, and eating disorders in a longitudinal study of adolescents: how do dieters fare 5 years later?. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(4):559-568. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2010.46.

Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet- - 2014;384, N9945:766-781. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736 (14)60460-8.

Nilsson AC, Ostman EM, Holst JJ, Björck IM. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. J Nutr. 2008;138:732-739. DOI: 10.1093/jn/138.4.732.

Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1751-1759. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27465.

Pendyala S, Walker JM, Holt PR. A high-fat diet is associated with endotoxemia that originates from the gut. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:1100-1101. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.01.034.

Poggi M, Bastelica D, Gual P et al. C3H/HeJ mice carrying a toll-like receptor 4 mutation are protected against the development of insulin resistance in white adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Diabetologia. 2007;50:1267-1276. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-007-0654-8.

Qin J, Li Y, Cai Z et al. A metagenome-wide associati on study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2012;490:55-60. DOI: 10.1038/nature11450.

Rashmi HM, Namita R et al. Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16, N1:20-27. DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.91178.

Rastmaneh R. High polyphenol, low probiotic diet for weightloss because of intestinal microbiota interaction. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;189:1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.10.002.

Rinella ME. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review. JAMA- - 2015;313:2263-2273. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2015.5370.

Rodriguez JM, Murphy K, Stanton C et al. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2015;26. 26050. DOI: 10.3402/mehd.v26.26050.

Russell WR, Gratz SW, Duncan SH et al. High-protein, reduced-carbohydrate weight-loss diets promote metabolite profiles likely to be detrimental to colonic health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(5):1062-1072. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.110.002188.

Saarni SE, Rissanen A, Sarna S et al. Weight cycling of athletes and subsequent weight gain in middleage. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30 (11):1639-1644. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803325.

Saavedra JM. Clinical applications of probiotic agents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73, N6:1147S-1151S. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/73.6.1147S.

Samuel BS, Shaito A, Motoike T et al. Effects of the gut microbiota on host adiposity are modulated by the short-chain fatty-acid binding G protein-coupled receptor, Gpr41. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105:16767-16772. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0808567105.

Scarpellini E, Gabrielli M, Lauritano CE et al. High dosage rifaximin for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;25, N7:781-786. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03259.x.

Scarpignato C, Pelosini I. Rifaximin, a poorly absorbed antibiotic: pharmacology and clinicalpotential. Chemotherapy. 2005;51, suppl. 1:36-66. DOI: 10.1159/000081990.

Schwiertz A, Taras D, Schafer K et al. Microbiota and SCFA in lean and overweight healthy subjects. Obesity. 2010;18(1):190-195. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.167.

Silvestri C, Di Marzo V. The endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis and the etiopathology of metabolic disorders. Cell Metab. 2013;17:475-490. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.03.001.

Solga SF, Buckley G, Clark JM et al. The effect of a probiotic on hepatic steatosis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42:1117-1119. DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31816d920c.

Sonier B, Patrick C, Ajjikuttira P, Scott FW. Intestinal immune regulation as a potential diet-modifiable feature of gut inflammation and autoimmunity. Int Rev Immunol. 2009;28:414-445. DOI: 10.3109/08830180903208329.

Stappenbeck TS, Hooper LV, Gordon JI. Developmental regulation of intestinal angiogenesis by indigenous microbes via Paneth cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002;99:15451-15455. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.202604299.

Thaiss CA, Zmora N, Levy M, Elinav E. The microbiome and innate immunity. Nature. 2016;535 (7610):65-74. DOI: 10.1038/nature18847.

Tilg H, Adolph TE. Influence of the human intestinal microbiome on obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015;27(4):496-501. DOI: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000234.

Tilg H, Moschen AR. Food, immunity, and the microbiome. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:1107-1119. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.12.036.

Tims S, Derom C, Jonkers DM et al. Microbiota conservation and BMI signatures in adult monozygotic twins. Isme J. 2013;N 7 (4):707-717. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2012.146.

Tuohy KM, Fava F, Viola R. «The way to a man’s heart is through his gut microbiota» - dietary pro- and prebiotics for the management of cardiovascular risk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2014;73:172-185. DOI: 10.1017/S0029665113003911.

Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T et al. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature. 2009;457:480-484. DOI: 10.1038/nature07540.

Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA et al. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature. 2006;444 (7122):1027-1031. DOI: 10.1038/nature05414.

Waitzberg DL, Pereira CC.A., Logullo L et al. Microbiota benefits after inulin and partially hydrolized guar gum supplementation - a randomized clinical trial in constipated women. Nutr Hosp. 2012;27(1):123-129. DOI: 10.1590/S0212-16112012000100014.

Walker AW, Ince J, Duncan SH et al. Dominant and diet-responsive groups of bacteria within the human colonic microbiota. Isme J. 2011;N 5 (2):220-230. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2010.118.

Walters WA, Xu Z, Knight R. Meta-analyses of human gut microbes associated with obesity and IBD. Febs Letters. 2014;588 (22):4223-4233. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2014.09.039.

Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M et al. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in a diposet issue. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1796-1808. DOI: 10.1172/JCI19246.

Wong RJ, Aguilar M, Cheung R et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the second leading etiology of liver disease among adults awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2015;148, N3:547-555. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.11.039.

World Health Organization (WHO), Fact Sheet No 311 (updated March 2013). URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.

Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C et al. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Science. 2011;334 (6052):105-108. DOI: 10.1126/science.1208344.

Xiao S, Fei N, Pang X et al. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2014;87:357-367. DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12228.

Ze X, Le Mougen F, Duncan SH et al. Some are more equal than others: the role of «keystone» species in the degradation of recalcitrant substrates. Gut Microbes. 2013;N 4 (3):236-40. DOI: 10.4161/gmic.23998.

Zuo HJ, Xie ZM, Zhang WW et al. Gut bacteria alteration in obese people and its relationship with gene polymorphism. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(8):1076-1081. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i8.1076.




© Сучасна гастроентерологія, 2019
© ТОВ «ВІТ-А-ПОЛ», 2019