DOI: https://doi.org/10.30978/MG-2019-3-91

Рекомендації Європейської асоціації з вивчення печінки (EASL) щодо харчування хворих з хронічними захворюваннями печінки. Частина 2

O. G. Kurinna

Анотація


-

Ключові слова


-

Повний текст:

PDF

Посилання


Merli M, Giusto M, Gentili F, Novelli G, Ferretti G, Riggio O et al. Nutritional status: its influence on the outcome of patients undergoingliver transplantation. Liver Int. 2010;30:208-214.

Englesbe MJ, Patel SP, He K, Lynch RJ, Schaubel DE, Harbaugh C et al. Sarcopenia and mortality after liver transplantation. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;211:271-278.

Ney M, Vandermeer B, Van Zanten S, Ma M, Gramlich L, Tandon P. Meta-analysis: oral or enteral nutritional supplementation in cirrhosis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;37:672-679.

Merli M, Riggio O, Dally L. Does malnutrition affect survival incirrhosis? PINC (Policentrica Italiana Nutrizione Cirrosi). Hepatology. 1996;23:1041-1046.

Tandon P, Raman M, Mourtzakis M, Merli M. A practical approach to nutritional screening and assessment in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2017;65:1044-1057.

Glass C, Hipskind P, Tsien C, Malin SK, Kasumov T, Shah SN et al. Sarcopenia and a physiologically low respiratory quotient in patientswith cirrhosis: a prospective controlled study. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2013:559-565.

Glass C, Hipskind P, Cole D, Lopez R, Dasarathy S. Handheld calorimeteris a valid instrument to quantify resting energy expenditure inhospitalized cirrhotic patients: a prospective study. Nutr Clin Pract. 2012;27:677-688.

Dasarathy S, Merli M. Sarcopenia from mechanism to diagnosis andtreatment in liver disease. J Hepatol. 2016;65:1232-1244.

Dasarathy S. Nutrition and alcoholic liver disease: effects of alcoholismon nutrition, effects of nutrition on alcoholic liver disease, andnutritional therapies for alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20:535-550.

Dasarathy S. Cause and management of muscle wasting in chronic liverdisease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2016;32:159-165.

Dasarathy J, McCullough AJ, Dasarathy S. Sarcopenia in alcoholic liverdisease: clinical and molecular advances. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017;41:1419-1431.

Greco AV, Mingrone G, Benedetti G et al. Daily energy and substrate metabolism in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1998;27:346-350.

Guglielmi FW, Panella C, Buda A et al. Nutritional state and energy balance in cirrhotic patients with orwithout hypermetabolism. Multicentre prospective study by the‘Nutritional Problems in Gastroenterology’ Section of the Italian Societyof Gastroenterology (SIGE). Dig Liver Dis. 2005;37:681-688.

Riggio O, Angeloni S, Ciuffa L, Nicolini G, Attili AF, Albanese C. et al. Malnutrition is not related to alterations in energy balance in patientswith stable liver cirrhosis. Clin Nutr. 2003;22:553-559.

Nielsen K, Kondrup J, Martinsen L, Dossing H, Larsson B, Stilling B et al. Long-term oral refeeding of patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Br J Nutr. 1995;74:557-567.

Dolz C, Raurich JM, Ibanez J, Obrador A, Marse P, Gaya J. Ascitesincreases the resting energy expenditure in liver cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1991;100:738-744.

Madden AM, Morgan MY. Resting energy expenditure should bemeasured in patients with cirrhosis, not predicted. Hepatology. 1999;30:655-664.

Tajika M, Kato M, Mohri H, Miwa Y, Kato T, Ohnishi H et al. Prognosticvalue of energy metabolism in patients with viral liver cirrhosis. Nutrition. 2002;18:229-234.

Knudsen AW, Krag A, Nordgaard-Lassen I, Frandsen E, Tofteng F, Mortensen C et al. Effect of paracentesis on metabolic activity inpatients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2016;51:601-609.

Muller MJ, Bottcher J, Selberg O, Weselmann S, Boker KH, Schwarze M et al. Hypermetabolism in clinically stable patients with liver cirrhosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:1194-1201.

Peng S, Plank LD, McCall JL et al. Body composition, muscle function, and energy expenditure in patients with liver cirrhosis: a comprehensive study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1257-1266.

Hipskind P, Glass C, Charlton D, Nowak D, Dasarathy S. Do handheldcalorimeters have a role in assessment of nutrition needs in hospitalizedpatients? A systematic review of literature. Nutr Clin Pract. 2011;26:426-433.

Iwasa M, Iwata K, Hara N, Hattori A, Ishidome M, Sekoguchi-Fujikawa N et al. Nutrition therapy using a multidisciplinary team improvessurvival rates in patients with liver cirrhosis. Nutrition. 2013;29:1418-1421.

Tsien CD, McCullough AJ, Dasarathy S. Late evening snack: exploiting aperiod of anabolic opportunity in cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27:430-441.

Vaisman N, Katzman H, Carmiel-Haggai M, Lusthaus M, Niv E. Breakfastimproves cognitive function in cirrhotic patients with cognitiveimpairment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:137-140.

Plank LD, Gane EJ, Peng S, Muthu C, Mathur S, Gillanders L et al. Nocturnal nutritional supplementation improves total body proteinstatus of patients with liver cirrhosis: a randomized 12-month trial. Hepatology. 2008;48:557-566.

Nielsen K, Kondrup J, Martinsen L, Stilling B, Wikman B. Nutritionalassessment and adequacy of dietary intake in hospitalized patientswith alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Br J Nutr. 1993;69:665-679.

Swart GR, van den Berg JW, van Vuure JK, Rietveld T, Wattimena DL, Frenkel M. Minimum protein requirements in liver cirrhosis determinedby nitrogen balance measurements at three levels of proteinintake. Clin Nutr. 1989;8:329-336.

Fenton JC, Knight EJ, Humpherson PL. Milk-and-cheese diet in portalsystemicencephalopathy. Lancet. 1966;287:164-166.

Bianchi GP, Marchesini G, Fabbri A, Rondelli A, Bugianesi E, Zoli M et al. Vegetable versus animal protein diet in cirrhotic patients with chronicencephalopathy. A randomized cross-over comparison. J Intern Med. 1993;233:385-392.

Gheorghe L, Iacob R, Vadan R, Iacob S, Gheorghe C. Improvement ofhepatic encephalopathy using a modified high-calorie high-proteindiet. Rom J Gastroenterol. 2005;14:231-238.

Cordoba J, Lopez-Hellin J, Planas M, Sabin P, Sanpedro F, Castro F et al. Normal protein diet for episodic hepatic encephalopathy: results of arandomized study. J Hepatol. 2004;41:38-43.

Carey EJ, Lai JC, Wang CW et al. A multicenter study to define sarcopenia in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2017;23:625-633.

Rennie MJ, Tipton KD. Protein and amino acid metabolism during andafter exercise and the effects of nutrition. Ann Rev Nutr. 2000;20:457-483.

Periyalwar P, Dasarathy S. Malnutrition in cirrhosis: contribution andconsequences of sarcopenia on metabolic and clinical responses. Clin Liver Dis. 2012;16:95-131.

Dasarathy S. Consilience in sarcopenia of cirrhosis. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2012;N 3:225-237.

Tessari P. Protein metabolism in liver cirrhosis: from albumin to musclemyofibrils. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003;6:79-85.

DiCecco SR, Wieners EJ, Wiesner RH, Southorn PA, Plevak D. J., Krom RA. Assessment of nutritional status of patients with end-stage liverdisease undergoing liver transplantation. Mayo Clin Proc. 1989;64:95-102.

Sinclair M, Grossmann M, Hoermann R, Angus PW, Gow PJ. Testosteronetherapy increases muscle mass in men with cirrhosis and low testosterone:a randomised controlled trial. J Hepatol. 2016;65:906-913.

Assy N, Hochberg Z, Amit T, Shen-Orr Z, Enat R, Baruch Y. Growthhormone-stimulated insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I and IGF-bindingprotein-3 in liver cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 1997;27:796-802.

Chen HW, Dunn MA. Muscle at risk: the multiple impacts of ammoniaon sarcopenia and frailty in cirrhosis. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2016;7. P. e170.

Dam G, Ott P, Aagaard NK, Vilstrup H. Branched-chain amino acids andmuscle ammonia detoxification in cirrhosis. Metab Brain Dis. 2013;28:217-220.

Tsien C, Davuluri G, Singh D, Allawy A, Ten Have GA, Thapaliya S et al. Metabolic and molecular responses to leucine-enriched branched chainamino acid supplementation in the skeletal muscle of alcoholiccirrhosis. Hepatology. 2015;61:2018-2029.

Nishikawa H, Enomoto H, Ishii A, Iwata Y, Miyamoto Y, Ishii N. et al. Elevated serum myostatin level is associated with worse survival inpatients with liver cirrhosis. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017;8:915-925.

HolecekM. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation in treatment ofliver cirrhosis: Updated views on how to attenuate their harmful effectson cataplerosis and ammonia formation. Nutrition. 2017;41:80-85.

Dasarathy S, McCullough AJ, Muc S, Schneyer A, Bennett C. D., Dodig M et al. Sarcopenia associated with portosystemic shunting is reversed byfollistatin. J Hepatol. 2011;54:915-921.

Qiu J, Thapaliya S, Runkana A, Yang Y, Tsien C, Mohan ML et al. Hyperammonemia in cirrhosis induces transcriptional regulation ofmyostatin by an NF-kappaB-mediated mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110:18162-18167.

Qiu J, Tsien C, Thapalaya S, Narayanan A, Weihl CC, Ching JK et al. Hyperammonemia-mediated autophagy in skeletal muscle contributesto sarcopenia of cirrhosis. Am J Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2012;303. P. E983–E993.

Thapaliya S, Runkana A, McMullen MR, Nagy LE, McDonald C., NagaPrasad SV et al. Alcohol-induced autophagy contributes to loss inskeletal muscle mass. Autophagy. 2014;10:677-690.

Zenith L, Meena N, Ramadi A, Yavari M, Harvey A, Carbonneau M et al. Eight weeks of exercise training increases aerobic capacity and musclemass and reduces fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12. P. e1922.

Berzigotti A, Saran U, Dufour JF. Physical activity and liver diseases. Hepatology. 2016;63:1026-1040.

Berzigotti A, Albillos A, Villanueva C, Genesca J, Ardevol A, Augustin S et al. Effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention program on portalhypertension in patients with cirrhosis and obesity: the SportDietstudy. Hepatology. 2017;65:1293-1305.

Nagasue N, Yukaya H, Chang YC, Ogawa Y, Kohno H, Ito A. Active uptakeof testosterone by androgen receptors of hepatocellular carcinoma inhumans. Cancer. 1986;57:2162-2167.

Gorostiaga EM, Navarro-Amezqueta I, Calbet JA, Sanchez-Medina L, Cusso R, Guerrero M et al. Blood ammonia and lactate as markers ofmuscle metabolites during leg press exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28:2775-2785.

Takeda K, Takemasa T. Expression of ammonia transporters Rhbg andRhcg in mouse skeletal muscle and the effect of 6-week training onthese proteins. Physiol Rep. 2015:3.

McDaniel J, Davuluri G, Hill EA, Moyer M, Runkana A, Prayson R et al. Hyperammonemia results in reduced muscle function independent ofmuscle mass. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310. P. G163–G170.

Kumar A, Davuluri G, Silva RN. E., Engelen M, Ten Have G A. M., Prayson R et al. Ammonia lowering reverses sarcopenia of cirrhosis by restoringskeletal muscle proteostasis. Hepatology. 2017;65:2045-2058.

Nakaya Y, Harada N, Kakui S, Okada K, Takahashi A, Inoi J et al. Severecatabolic state after prolonged fasting in cirrhotic patients: effect oforal branched-chain amino-acid-enriched nutrient mixture. J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:531-536.

Yoshida T, Muto Y, Moriwaki H, Yamato M. Effect of long-term oralsupplementation with branched-chain amino acid granules on theprognosis of liver cirrhosis. Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989;24:692-698.

Fialla AD, Israelsen M, Hamberg O et al. Nutritional therapy in cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Liver Int. 2015;35:2072-2078.

Koretz RL, Avenell A, Lipman TO. Nutritional support for liver disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;CD008344.

Antar R, Wong P, Ghali P. A meta-analysis of nutritional supplementationfor management of hospitalized alcoholic hepatitis. Can J Gastroenterol. 2012;26:463-467.

Plauth M, Cabre E, Campillo B, Kondrup J, Marchesini G, Schutz T et al. ESPenteral nutrition Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: hepatology. Clin Nutr. 2009;28:436-444.

Maharshi S, Sharma BC, Sachdeva S, Srivastava S, Sharma P. Efficacy ofnutritional therapy for patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepaticencephalopathy in a randomized trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;14:454-460.

Liao CD, Tsauo JY, Wu YT, Cheng CP, Chen HC, Huang Y. C. et al. Effects ofprotein supplementation combined with resistance exercise on bodycomposition and physical function in older adults: a systematic reviewand meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:1078-1091.

Baar K. Training for endurance and strength: lessons from cellsignaling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:1939-1944.

Dietrich R, Bachmann C, Lauterburg BH. Exercise-induced hyperammonemiain patients with compensated chronic liver disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990;25:329-334.

Garcia-Pagan JC, Santos C, Barbera JA, Luca A, Roca J, Rodriguez-RoisinR. et al. Physical exercise increases portal pressure in patients withcirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastroenterology. 1996;111:1300-1306.

Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Krieger JW. The effect of protein timing onmuscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10:53.

Beale DJ et al. Evidence inconclusive — comment on article bySchoenfeld. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:37.

Jones JC, Coombes JS, Macdonald GA. Exercise capacity and musclestrength in patients with cirrhosis. Liver Transpl. 2012;18:146-151.

Dharancy S, Lemyze M, Boleslawski E, Neviere R, Declerck N, Canva V et al. Impact of impaired aerobic capacity on liver transplant candidates. Transplantation. 2008;86:1077-1083.

Matsumoto R, Fukuoka H, Iguchi G, Nishizawa H, Bando H, Suda K et al. Long-term effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on liverfunction in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency. Growth Horm IG F Res. 2014;24:174-179.

Sinclair M, Gow PJ, Grossmann M, Angus PW. Review article: sarcopeniain cirrhosis–aetiology, implications and potential therapeuticinterventions. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016;43:765-777.

Berzigotti A, Garcia-Tsao G, Bosch J et al. Obesity is an independent risk factor for clinical decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011;54:555-561.

Everhart JE, Lok AS, Kim HY, Morgan TR, Lindsay KL, Chung RT et al. Weight-related effects on disease progression in the hepatitis Cantiviral long-term treatment against cirrhosis trial. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:549-557.

Macias-Rodriguez RU, Ilarraza-Lomeli H, Ruiz-Margain A, Ponce-de-Leon-Rosales S, Vargas-Vorackova F, Garcia-Flores O. et al. Changes inhepatic venous pressure gradient induced by physical exercise incirrhosis: results of a pilot randomized open clinical trial. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2016;7. P. e180.

Venu M, Martin E, Saeian K, Gawrieh S. High prevalence of vitamin Adeficiency and vitamin D deficiency in patients evaluated for livertransplantation. Liver Transpl. 2013;19:627-633.

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin Ddeficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1911-1930.

Trautwein C, Possienke M, Schlitt HJ, Boker KH, Horn R, Raab R et al. Bone density and metabolism in patients with viral hepatitis andcholestatic liver diseases before and after liver transplantation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:2343-2351.

Stokes CS, Volmer DA, Grunhage F, Lammert F. Vitamin D. in chronicliver disease. Liver Int. 2013;33:338-352.

Barchetta I, Angelico F, Del Ben M, Baroni MG, Pozzilli P, Morini S et al. Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)and low 25 (OH) vitamin D levels in an adult population with normalserum liver enzymes. BMC Med. 2011;9:85.

Petta S, Camma C, Scazzone C et al. Lowvitamin D. serum level is related to severe fibrosis and low responsivenessto interferon-based therapy in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2010;51:1158-1167.

European Association for the Study of the. L. EASL Clinical PracticeGuidelines: management of cholestatic liver diseases. J Hepatol. 2009;51:237-267.

Dasarathy J, Varghese R, Feldman A et al. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease have a lowresponse rate to vitamin D supplementation. J Nutr. 2017.

Kril JJ, Butterworth RF. Diencephalic and cerebellar pathology inalcoholic and nonalcoholic patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 1997;26:837-841.

Bemeur C, Butterworth RF. Nutrition in the management of cirrhosisand its neurological complications. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2014;4:141-150.

Cosgray RE, Hanna V, Davidhizar RE, Smith J. The water-intoxicatedpatient. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 1990;4:308-312.

Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Norenberg MD. Rapid correction ofhyponatremia causes demyelination: relation to central pontine myelinolysis. Science. 1981;211:1068-1070.

European Association for the Study of the L. EASL clinical practiceguidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterialperitonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010;53:397-417.

Gu XB, Yang XJ, Zhu HY, Xu BY. Effect of a diet with unrestricted sodiumon ascites in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Gut Liver. 2012;6:355-361.

Morando F, Rosi S, Gola E, Nardi M, Piano S, Fasolato S et al. Adherenceto a moderate sodium restriction diet in outpatients with cirrhosis andascites: a real-life cross-sectional study. Liver Int. 2015;35:1508-1515.

Huskisson E, Maggini S, Ruf M. The influence of micronutrients oncognitive function and performance. J Int Med Res. 2007;35:1-19.

Bresci G, Parisi G, Banti S. Management of hepatic encephalopathy withoral zinc supplementation: a long-term treatment. Eur J Med. 1993;2:414-416.

Takuma Y, Nouso K, Makino Y, Hayashi M, Takahashi H. Clinical trial: oral zinc in hepatic encephalopathy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;32:1080-1090.

Katayama K, Saito M, Kawaguchi T, Endo R, Sawara K, Nishiguchi S et al. Effect of zinc on liver cirrhosis with hyperammonemia: apreliminary randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Nutrition. 2014;30:1409-1414.

Himoto T, Yoneyama H, Kurokohchi K, Inukai M, Masugata H., Goda F et al. Selenium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance inpatients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease. Nutr Res. 2011;31:829-835.

Inoue E, Hori S, Narumi Y, Fujita M, Kuriyama K, Kadota T. et al. Portal systemic encephalopathy: presence of basal ganglia lesions with highsignal intensity on MR images. Radiology. 1991;179:551-555.

Thompson J, Schafer D, Haun J, Schafer G. Adequate diet preventshepatic coma in dogs with Eck fistulas. Surg Gynecol Obstetr. 1986;162:126-130.

Kalaitzakis E, Olsson R, Henfridsson P, Hugosson I, Bengtsson M, Jalan R et al. Malnutrition and diabetes mellitus are related to hepaticencephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2007;27:1194-1201.

Merli M, Giusto M, Lucidi C, Giannelli V, Pentassuglio I, Di Gregorio V et al. Muscle depletion increases the risk of overt and minimal hepaticencephalopathy: results of a prospective study. Metab Brain Dis. 2013;28:281-284.

Nardelli S, Lattanzi B, Torrisi S et al. Sarcopenia is risk factor for development of hepatic encephalopathyafter transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;15:934-936.

Olde Damink SW, Jalan R, Deutz NE, Redhead DN, Dejong CH, Hynd P et al. The kidney plays a major role in the hyperammonemia seen aftersimulated or actual GI bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2003;37:1277-1285.

Chatauret N, Desjardins P, Zwingmann C, Rose C, Rao KR, Butterworth RF. Direct molecular and spectroscopic evidence for increased ammoniaremoval capacity of skeletal muscle in acute liver failure. J Hepatol. 2006;44:1083-1088.

McDaniel J, Davuluri G, Hill EA, Moyer M, Runkana A, Prayson R et al. Hyperammonemia results in reduced muscle function independent ofmuscle mass. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310. P. G163–G170.

Kumar A, Davuluri G, Engelen MP, Ten Have GA, Prayson R, Deutz NE et al. Ammonia lowering reverses sarcopenia of cirrhosis by restoringskeletal muscle proteostasis. Hepatology. 2017;65:2045-2058.

Amodio P, Bemeur C, Butterworth R et al. The nutritional management of hepatic encephalopathy inpatients with cirrhosis: International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathyand Nitrogen Metabolism Consensus. Hepatology. 2013;58:325-336.

Schwartz R, Phillips GB, Seegmiller JE, Gabuzda GJ. Jr., Davidson CS. Dietary protein in the genesis of hepatic coma. N Engl J Med. 1954;251:685-689.

Summerskill W, Wolfe SJ, Davidson CS. The management of hepaticcoma in relation to protein withdrawal and certain specific measures. Am J Med. 1957;23:59-76.

Soulsby CT, Morgan MY. Dietary management of hepatic encephalopathyin cirrhotic patients: survey of current practice in United Kingdom. BMJ. 1999;318:1391.

Campollo O, Sprengers D, Dam G et al. Proteintolerance to standard and high protein meals in patients with livercirrhosis. World. J Hepatol. 2017;9:667-676.

Condon RE. Effect of dietary protein on symptoms and survival in dogswith an Eck fistula. Am J Surg. 1971;121:107-114.

Bessman AN, Mirick GS. Blood ammonia levels following the ingestionof casein and whole blood. J Clin Invest. 1958;37:990-998.

Greenberger NJ, Carley J, Schenker S et al. Effect of vegetable and animal protein diets in chronic hepaticencephalopathy. Dig Dis Sci. 1977;22:845-855.

Amodio P, Caregaro L, Patteno E et al. Vegetarian diets in hepatic encephalopathy: facts or fantasies?. Dig Liver Dis. 2001;33:492-500.

Montano-Loza AJ, Meza-Junco J, Prado CM et al. Muscle wasting is associated with mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;N 10:166-173,173 e161.

Uribe M, Dibildox M, Malpica S, Guillermo E, Villallobos A, Nieto L et al. Beneficial effect of vegetable protein diet supplemented with psylliumplantago in patients with hepatic encephalopathy and diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology. 1985;88:901-907.

Kawaguchi T, Izumi N, Charlton MR, Sata M. Branched-chain aminoacids as pharmacological nutrients in chronic liver disease. Hepatology. 2011;54:1063-1070.

Holecek M. Three targets of branched-chain amino acid supplementationin the treatment of liver disease. Nutrition. 2010;26:482-490.

Dam G, Ott P, Aagaard NK, Vilstrup H. Branched-chain amino acids andmuscle ammonia detoxification in cirrhosis. Metab Brain Dis. 2013;28:217-220.

Marchesini G, Bianchi G, Merli M et al. Nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids inadvanced cirrhosis: a double-blind, randomized trial. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:1792-1801.

Davuluri G, Krokowski D, Guan BJ et al. Metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscle to hyperammonemia drivesthe beneficial effects of l-leucine in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2016;65:929-937.

Gluud LL, Dam G, Les I et al. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;CD001939.

Gluud LL, Dam G, Les I et al. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;5. CD001939.




© Сучасна гастроентерологія, 2020
© ТОВ «ВІТ-А-ПОЛ», 2020